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Rajputana Kingdoms

Before 1949, the present day Rajasthan was known as Rajputana and Rajwar. Rajputana means the country of Rajputs or the abode of Rajas. In terms of area, it is the largest state. The western part of India was ruled by Rajputs from the seventh and eight century onwards. This state has a highest density of fort constructions. During the 19th century, under the British rule, Dholpur and Tonk were created by the land taken from the Rajputana State. In 1192 CE, after the demise of Prithviraj Chauhan Ajmer was the only region that fell under the control of Muslim rulers.

Pariharas, Chaulukyas, Parmars and Chauhans were the main first four angnivanshi Rajput clans who rose to prominence during the 7th century. There were other Rajputs also. During the 8th century CE the Gehlot dynasty of Chittor established them under the leadership of Bappa Rawal. Mori clan of Rajputs ruled Chittor after Bappa Rawal. The last king of Chittor was Maan Mori. Gwalior and Narwar were ruled by Kachwaha dynasty in 8th century. Dulah rai, one of its descendents established his rule in Dhundhar in 11th century. The Parihara Agnivanshi clan ruled over the Malwa region. They ruled Bhinmal and afterwards Ujjaini during the 8th and 9th centuries.

Marwar in the state of Mandore was established by one branch of Parihara dynasty in 6th and 7th century. They ruled there for centuries until they were defeated by the Rathores in the 14th century. The Pariharas in 816 AD conquered Kannauj and from this city they reined over most parts of northern India for almost a century. During the early 10th century the Parihara dynasty crumbled down after the invasions by Rastrakutas. Kachwahas who founded Gwalior and Narwar were originally from Bihar. Bundelkhand was ruled by Chandela clan after the 10th century. They built the famous temples of Khajuraho and occupied the Kalinger fort.

During this period the Rajput clans finally took shape and character. Various clans were linked by encouraging marriage among different clans. The association of various clans led to the flow of trade and scholarships within the Rajputana region.

The fertile and flourishing northern regions of India had always been the target of invaders from the North West foreign lands. Due to its geographic placement, the Rajputana state suffered heavily from the invasions of various Mughal, Afghan and Turkic warlords from time to time during the 11th and 12th Centuries. Moreover the conflict among the Rajput kings also made the invaders victorious.

The last Rajput ruler of Delhi was Prithviraj Chauhan. Govinda, his grandson led the Chauhans and established a small state around, the present day, Ranthambore. Jalore was ruled by the Songara sect of Chauhan clan while the Hada sect of the same clan established themselves in the Hadoti region during the mid 13th century. During the 11th century Taranga was ruled by Maharaja Ranavghansinh of Revar. King Man Singh of the Tomaras clan built a fortress in Gwalior and they established themselves in the region. Gahadvala kingdom of Kannauj was defeated by Muhammad’s armies in 1194AD. The surviving members of the Gahadvala dynasty formed the Rathore who later founded and rules the state of Marwar. From 12th to 16th century, many Rajput clans emigrated to Himalayas. The Chauhans of chamba, the Katoch clan and certain other clans of Nepal and Uttarkhand are few of the clans which emigrated.

The Delhi Sultanate conquered Malwa, Ranthambore, Bhinmal, Jalore and Chittorgarh after long and stern resistance from their Rajput rulers. The first Jauhar, particularly the conquest of Chittor; Guhilas brave defence, the tale of Rani Padmini and Jauhar are the matter of everlasting legend. This incident defined the character and strength of the Rajputs. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi and smothered the Delhi Sultanate. Ruler of Mewar, Rana Sanga challenged Babur and was defeated. The Second Jauhar was soon after the battle of Khanua during which Rana Sanga died. Chittor was conquered by Akbar after the Rajputs gave a tough fight to the Muhal emperor. The third and the last Jauhar of Chittor came to light when the all the ladies in the fort set themselves ablaze and the men went out of the fort to fight the Muslim invaders until death.

2 Comments

  1. Chouhan Vaibhav says:

    Very Nice Sir I Like Most.
    Thanks.
    Chouhan Vaibhav.

  2. Chouhan Rajputana says:

    True And Nice Write.

    Sir I Wana Add. U In My Cont.
    May I….?

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