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Sikhs, Afghans And Baluchis Annex

The Sikh state existed between 1799 and 1849. The state had many independent Punjabi Sikh Misls which were ruled by the Misldars. All the Misldars were noble men with long and prestigious histories. The Sikh empire showed signs of its existence in 1701 during the days of Sikh Confederation. With the decline of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb the Sikhs began to rise. After Maharaja Ranjit Singh came to throne, the Misls merged into one unified Sikh Empire from 1801 to 1849. It extended from Khyber Pass in the west, to Tibet in the east and from Kashmir in the north to Sindh in the south. The main territory of this empire was Punjab. The Sikh empire consisted of 90% Muslims, 10% Sikhs and 10% Hindus.

After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1839, the empire began to disintegrate. Political mismanagement and internal division among the Sikhs were the main reasons. The British took advantage of this situation and waged war against the Sikhs. Many Sikh army officers sided with the British secretly and gave them information about the war plans of the Sikhs. The British Empire dissolved the once so strong Sikh Empire after the second was in 1849.

Balochisthan now one of the four provinces of Pakistan was a part of the extended territory of India before the Partition of India and Pakistan. It was ruled by the Paratarajas of the Indo-Parthian dynasty from 1st century to 3rd century CE. The Puranas and the other literary texts suggested that the Paratas were identical to the Paradas of Mahabharata. They were basically recognized from their coins, which displayed bust of the ruler on the front with longhair within the crown and the impression of swastika on the reverse of the silver coin and Kharoshthi, which is a ghandhari script, on the copper crown. On the contrary, the Greek historian Herodotus believed that the Paratarajas was a tribe ruled by the Persian king Deiokes. But in reality Balochies were migrants who were given refuge in the Sindh region after Genghis Khan invaded Persia. Later the clans of sardars came in existence after the infighting between the Balochies. The British east India Company named this region Balochistan and gained support of the sardars and gave them the titles of Nawabs. These newly formed Nawabs were given the responsibility to keep a check on the minor Baloch, Pathans and other smaller fractions by the Britishers.

Afghanistan was ruled by ghandharvas or Ghandharas. It was considered to be the hub of Vedic traditions. The Indo Aryans believed Ghandarvas were higher being with divine magical powers because the Vedics texts described them as celestial beings with supernatural powers. After the decline Kushan Empire in 3rd century, the Kabul valley and the old province of Ghandhara was ruled by Shahiya dynasties. They ruled eastern Afghanistan for around 6 centuries until the Ghaznavid invasions. The Non Muslim population of eastern Afghanistan was culturally and sturdily linked to the Indian subcontinent as they worshipped Hindu deities or majority of them were Buddhists. Many rulers of Indian decent namely Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka, Humyaun and Akbar ruled this region at different times but were not able to keep it under their possession. The country’s strategic location makes it a target for invasions and attacks. Seleucus who reined Afghanistan in 303 BC was defeated by Muryan King Chnadragupta Maurya. As a part of the agreement, Seleucus surrendered Afghanistan area to Chandragupta Maurya and married his daughter to him. For centuries, the Mauryans rule the region. After the coronation of Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, Buddhism spread in this region After Ashoka renounced the world, the Mauryan Empire declined and Afghanistan was left to itself. After the series of invasion Afghanistan was taken over by Genghis Khan, who’s descendent Babur also ruled some parts of Afghanistan before invading Indian. Babur was the first mughal emperor of India who stayed back in India to strengthen his empire. Form then on Afghanistan remained the territory of Indian Mughal rulers or decedents of Babur mainly Humayun and Akbar for centuries until they were dethroned by the Pasthuns tribes. Pasthun tribes considered themselves to be pure Afghans and resided mainly around the borders of Afghanistan. They remained in power till 1978.

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